The topic of “active threat” and what is being done to prepare for a potential event is a highly relevant one in the law enforcement world. And, though an active threat may look different for them, the military must also prepare for such instances.
An active threat is identified as an event where a populated area is being targeted by one or more people with the intent to obtain a high number of casualties. When faced with an active threat, the attacker/attackers are often individuals whose beliefs do not align with their targets. Generally, firearms or explosives are the weapons utilized in these situations.
Firearms are a frequently used method in green-on-blue attacks; however, explosives tend to be more common overseas within military active threat situations. There are a variety of ways that explosives can be utilized such as in mines and hidden bombs, launched grenades, vehicle-borne devices or even attached to an individual.
In a statistic provided by the Defense Department, “…improvised explosive devices account for 50 percent of all daily attacks…Of the three types of IEDs (roadside bombs, vehicle-born bombs and suicide bombs), roadside bombs are responsible for the most casualties.”
Despite the circumstance, the main goal is for military teams to eliminate the threat as quickly as possible and keep as many lives safe as possible, including their own.
It is important for servicemembers to have access to real-world training for these situations. However, replicating such a high-stress situation, especially one with explosives, can seem challenging for teams to accomplish safely.
But realistic training for an active threat situation is made possible with the VirTra simulators. Servicemembers can train through real-world scenarios designed to help them practice situational awareness, threat neutralization, marksmanship and so much more in a fully immersive experience.
Scenarios are designed to put trainees under stress while also requiring them to use quick decision-making skills, creating well-trained military teams that are prepared for these situations.
VirTra’s military training combat simulators provide access to multiple crucial training scenarios that are designed to help them stay prepared for active threats.
To learn more about the chosen defense simulation solution by the military, contact a VirTra specialist today!
Researchers Help U.S. Military Thwart Explosive Threats (phys.org)
It’s every officer’s worst nightmare – there is a person attacking a location with a steady stream of victims. Whether they are using a vehicle, bomb or firearm, the situation is always tragic and causes the nation to mourn. Once an active threat begins, there is never a “win” situation – the best first responders can do is mitigate loss. This is done by responding quickly and accurately given the situation.
Whenever a mass shooting of any kind occurs, officers and citizens alike wonder what could have been done differently. While it may be nearly impossible to prevent these situations from ever happening again, what can be controlled is the way officers respond through active threat training.
Agencies such as San Mateo Sheriff’s Office in California have put even more emphasis on training for active threat situations. Training officers as well as Sheriff Carlos Bolanos were able to demonstrate to local media how important it is to experience these events in a realistic environment. By going through heart-pumping scenarios on their V-300® 4K, officers can learn to work through fear and practice making split-second decisions.
“I think what we’re hearing very clearly is the public’s expectation that law enforcement is going to go in and immediately eliminate the threat to safety, and that’s what we’ve been training on for many years.” -Sheriff Carlos Bolanos
San Mateo County SO is the first law enforcement agency in California to have a 4K simulator. The crystal-clear picture helps officers feel like they are really in the active threat training scenario projected onscreen.
Not long after the CNN footage was recorded in Enid, Oklahoma, a mass shooting at a medical building in Tulsa occurred. This further solidified the need for Enid Police Department to continue their active threat training.
Enid PD officers notice a difference, with Officer Thomas Duran mentioning that he believes he is a better officer after the training compared to before. In the video below, you can see how Officer Duran must scan all angles for threats. He must take care not to react too abruptly and shoot an innocent running away, but also must neutralize the threat.
VirTra has created three separate nationally-certified curricula dedicated to active threat response. Titled “ATAK” (active threat / active killer), each course has been reviewed and NCP-certified by IADLEST. Totaling 11.25 hours of coursework, officers can learn everything from the history of active threats to the steps for a response.
Like other V-VICTA® curriculum, the ATAK series includes a lesson plan, presentations, testing materials, class surveys, rosters, and more. There are assigned scenarios designed to let students practice the skills they learn in class. This provides the “teach, train, test, sustain” methodology used in all V-VICTA courses.
To adopt our active threat training program and many others to your training regimen, contact a specialist.
“Keep your head on a swivel!” It is a phrase drilled into every trainee, every officer consistently by all instructors. There is no wonder why; knowing your surroundings at all times is critical, as it allows you to pinpoint threats, alternate routes, people in danger and more. But for this action to become second-nature, it must be practiced constantly, starting in the academy and continuing throughout one’s policing career.
The good news is that most training events can teach officers to keep their heads on a swivel. For example, VirTra’s V-180® and V-300® immersive training simulators are designed to do just that.
The V-180 is a three-screen, 180-degree simulator which officers step up to. By surrounding the officer in VirTra’s seamless high-resolution video, officers feel like they are standing in the shown environment—not the classroom. As the scenario progresses, people and actions will occur on all three screens, teaching trainees to look around the alley, home, or other shown environment to fully understand the situation. To further training and reduce repetition, instructors have the ability to alter branches in the event, thus creating new events on different screens.
While the V-180 is a powerful training tool, the V-300 is the best law enforcement training simulator on the market. Instead of 3 screens, the V-300 boasts 5 screens, which surrounds officers in 300-degrees of real-life action. This training simulator takes the lesson “keep your head on a swivel” to the next level by requiring officers to move around the simulator to get all angles on the situation.
A bigger training simulator allows more officers to train simultaneously, such as a unit, learning to cover one another. Having more screens also allows the scenario to feature events on more screens, which is shown in the VirTra scenario below. Watch as these officers engage in an Active Threat / Active Killer situation, which forces them to move around the simulator to pinpoint and stop all threats.
Teaching your officers to keep their heads on a swivel is a critical tool that may save their lives—and the lives of civilians and suspects alike—in the field. To learn more about how VirTra can aid in this skill, or try it for yourself at an upcoming trade show, talk to a VirTra specialist.
Despite having different names, there can be confusion on the difference between an active threat and a hostage or barricade situation. Understanding the difference is crucial because each situation requires different, unique law enforcement responses.
A hostage is a person held captive against their will until a specific ultimatum is met. The hostage is usually held by force—sometimes with the threat of a deadly weapon, such as with a gun to their head or knife to their neck—but occasionally hostages are held by verbal threats. The subject expects some kind of demand to be met in exchange for not harming the person they are holding hostage.
When faced with a hostage situation, law enforcement must reason or negotiate with the hostage taker and attempt to get them to peacefully surrender without harming the person/people they are holding hostage. As each situation is different, these complicated events require flexibility and preparation for many different routes the encounter may take.
In a barricade situation, an individual confines themselves to specific area that does not allow others to enter, then refuses to leave the area despite commands. A barricaded subject poses a danger to others, but unlike an active threat event, they are in a relatively fixed position and not roaming where a stream of potential victims may be.
Barricade incidents can be dangerous as many subjects have deadly weapons. At times, they threaten their own lives or the lives of others from their position. Barricades can go on for hours, as seen in this incident in Georgetown, KY. Sometimes others are within the barricaded area with the subject, despite not being held hostage.
A hostage barricade situation is a combination of the two incidents above; the subject is confined to an area and unwilling to leave while also holding a person against their will in exchange for an ultimatum. Hostage/barricade is often confused with an active threat, especially when shots are fired.
An example of a hostage/barricade would be when a bank robber is interrupted by police, then holds a customer or teller against their will to try and wrestle control away from law enforcement. In unfortunate circumstances, these situations may evolve into a murder/suicide where the subject kills the hostage(s) and then themselves.
There are characteristics of an active threat/active killer event that distinguish it from any of the aforementioned situations. Some of these include:
Module 1 of VirTra’s ATAK curriculum delves into not just preparation and practice for dealing with active threats, but helps law enforcement trainees distinguish between active threats and other situations. The 3-hour V-VICTA™ course offers testing and simulator practice on correctly identifying the threat, and then in turn, handling it in the proper way.
To learn how VirTra’s certified curriculum and immersive training scenarios can help law enforcement handle even the toughest events, contact a product specialist.
It’s common to think of a “shooter” when hearing the words “active threat,” but having this mindset doesn’t prepare officers for the incidents that involve explosives and IEDs. Even the infamous Columbine Massacre killers set up explosive devices, although a detonation did not occur due to faulty construction. Because of the frequency of which explosives are used in active threat situations, VirTra’s V-VICTA™ curriculum now has a third module focusing on explosive and incendiary device considerations.
What is an IED?
Improvised explosive devices – commonly shortened to IEDs – are often made from items found at hobby or supply stores. These include pipe bombs, crickets and others. Seemingly inconspicuous, everyday items can be used to make deadly homemade explosives. In overseas warzones, IEDs can even be made from military munitions and ordnance and functioned into vehicle-borne IED’s that can cause massive damage.
How Officers Deal with the Threats
In the face of this type of active threat, there are numerous considerations an officer must be aware of. These include:
• Blast pressure – Try to avoid being in the blast area. If impossible, there are ways to mitigate the effects of both extreme pressure and fragmentation.
• Activation methods – Most explosives have active switches, meaning they can be activated upon command. In rarer situations, there are deadman switches that activate if reached by the subject.
• Headshots – To quickly stop the threat without accidentally detonating the bomb in the process, gunfire must be accurately placed. A headshot is the quickest way to achieve central nervous system shutdown, eliminating the threat.
Because Active Threat / Active Killer events are some of the most challenging events to prepare for, the three-part ATAK series aims to increase officers’ understanding and awareness of various types of threats.
ATAK 3 is an NCP Certified V-VICTA course that contains 5.25 hours of rigorous curriculum. When used with the other two ATAK courses, it amounts to 11.25 hours total. Not only are instructors provided with a manual and testing materials, but also training tips and scenarios where students can practice what they have learned in the classroom in a safe, simulated setting.
If you’d like to learn more about how to incorporate this training into your agency, contact a product specialist here.
Sadly, the number of active threat situations within the United States has been consistently growing for more than a decade.
According to the FBI, 277 active shooter incidents have occurred between 2000 and 2018, with 844 people killed. The number of incidents and casualties are staggering, but take notice that these are just active shooter incidents and do not include subjects without guns, but instead armed with explosives, knives and other methods of injuring or killing innocents.
To help officers prepare for these terrible instances, VirTra created two modules designed to educate officers on how to best handle an active threat, protect civilians and minimize loss. These curricula, which fall under the Active Threat / Active Killer (ATAK) program, consist of two modules and soon to be three.
In total, this will be 11 hours of nationally-certified V-VICTA™ coursework, which comes free on all law enforcement training simulators. To ease the instructor’s workload, this V-VICTA curricula includes: class rosters, pre and post-tests, presentations, corresponding video training scenarios and more.
These realistic scenarios are designed to be used alongside the coursework for maximum learning and skill building. To further help instructors, scenarios are often based on real-life events. In the case of Active Threat/Active Killer, the 1999 Combine High School Massacre was used as a foundation for a few training scenarios for officers.
Officers and trainees will, throughout all modules, review the history of ATAK events and learn lessons from past police response.
For more information on V-VICTA and how it can provide effective training for your agency, please contact a VirTra specialist.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has labeled and identified 277 incidents of an “active shooter” between 2000 and 2018. These terrible incidents resulted in 2,430 casualties—884 people killed and 1,546 wounded—not counting the shooters.
Unfortunately, this number continues to rise. The year 2018 held 27 incidents, 213 casualties, 2 law enforcement personnel killed and 6 law enforcement officers wounded.
But in 2019, the numbers rose to 28 incidents, 247 casualties, 2 law enforcement personnel killed and 15 law enforcement personnel wounded. In addition, the number of incidents meeting the “mass killing” definition rose, as did the number of shooters wearing body armor and the total number of shooters.
Switching gears from incidents of an active shooter to mass shooting incidents, the number has also sharply increased over the years. The infographic below uses information from the Gun Violence Archive, which defines mass shootings as “a minimum of four victims shot (either fatally or not) excluding any shooter killed or injured in the attack.”
In just the past six years, the number of identified mass shooting incidents has almost doubled. And despite the pandemic, lockdowns and increased personal security, 2020 has been the highest number of mass shooting incidents.
What this means to departments everywhere: active shooter events are on the rise, so must also be officer training and preparedness. Though eliminating the number of active shooter events is the ultimate goal, officers everywhere must also be heavily trained on this topic, should it happen in their community.
Over the course of the last few years, departments everywhere have begun implementing a wide variety of techniques designed to prepare officers for active shooter situations. While many of these training solutions are beneficial, VirTra would like to introduce the most immersive, skill-transferring and certified active shooter training solution.
The V-300® is a highly realistic, 5-screen simulator that immerses the officer in the chosen scenario. A combination of high-resolution visuals and surround sound help increase the physical and psychological fidelity of the situation, making an officer’s responses similar to the same incident in the field. Instructors can select from one of the many active shooter scenarios, allowing officers to practice and transfer skills learned in the classroom to the simulator—then ultimately to the field.
For example, watch this video as officers enter a real VirTra Active Threat/Active Killer scenario from its latest release of V-VICTA curriculum and immediately take necessary steps to mitigate: view here.
By combining stress inoculation, rapid decision-making and tactical firearms training, officers receive a higher quality training that cannot be replicated by other training simulator “solutions”, lectures or even role-playing. In the case of Active Threat/Active Killers, VirTra also offers certified curriculum to supplement classroom learning before officers step into the simulator.
V-VICTA™ curriculum—Virtual Interactive Coursework Training Academy—comes free with all law enforcement simulators. Each curriculum is developed exclusively with nationally-recognized partners, maximizes training time and is nationally-certified.
As such, the Active Threat/Active Killer curriculum was critically reviewed by members of IADLEST and passed the rigors of their independent review process. This presents instructors with training hours and pre-packaged classroom curriculum and corresponding simulator scenarios to teach, train, test and sustain all officers.
Prepare your officers to the best of your abilities. For more information on integrating Active Threat/Active Shooter (ATAK) curriculum in your department, contact a VirTra specialist.
With an increase in active shooters and similar threats, law enforcement personnel have an increased responsibility to protect their communities. VirTra’s firearms training simulators are an excellent way to prepare for this growing problem. Each comprehensive and immersive simulation can prepare officers for the different variables associated with attacks—both common and rare.
In 2018, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) recognized twenty-seven active shooter incidents across 16 states. As a result of these incidents, eighty-five people were killed—including two law enforcement officers—and another 128 people were wounded, excluding the shooters. The total number of active shooter incidents has significantly increased since 2013, which was 17 events, and 2000, which was 1 event. As the threat of active shooters and active killers becomes increasingly prevalent, law enforcement must undergo additional training to mitigate these threats.
VirTra presents several firearms training simulators to law enforcement as a method of increasing their reaction time and skill. With active shooters, it is imperative for first responders to evaluate their surroundings and formulate the best course of action. The V-300® firearms training simulator is the higher standard, as police learn to analyze each situation from all angles. This includes evaluating the number of bystanders, obstacles near the subject, animals and more. At VirTra, we believe the best way to train police is by immersing them in the action.
Recognizing and interpreting details is crucial in training. Successful law enforcement agents know how to navigate a situation without becoming distracted by excess noise. In training, attention to audio is combined with attention to visual details, primarily facial cues, stance and other forms of nonverbal communication. VirTra’s firearms training simulators immerse participants in scenarios through high-resolution video and multi-directional audio, thus mimicking reality. High-end training content translates into a more experienced team.
Each scenario can be incredibly realistic, even beyond real-world visuals and audio cues. This new level of immersion is created through Threat-Fire®, which simulates hostile actions including gunfire, explosions, run down vehicles and dog attacks. The adjustable electric impulse setting of 0.02 to 2.5 seconds is enough to add real-world consequences that greatly enhance the effectiveness of simulation training.
VirTra’s training simulators focus on teaching proper decision-making and judgmental use of force in high-stress situations. Once law enforcement officers understand and practice basic protocols in the simulation, they are better equipped to react to, disarm and incapacitate active threats in the field.
As the threat of active shooters permeates society, law enforcement officials need to adjust training accordingly. The best way to alleviate public fear is by investing in training that properly prepares your department. Firearms training simulators from VirTra are instrumental in improving defenses against active shooters, thereby maximizing public and law enforcement safety. Contact VirTra to learn more about how you can improve your team’s defenses against an active threat.
This month, VirTra will debut its new V-VICTA® curriculum. The release is being announced at the 2019 ALERRT Conference in Colorado. This annual event focuses on the 20th anniversary of the Columbine massacre. ALERRT, or Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, provides information and training for first responders. VirTra will be participating in the conference as one of ALERRT’s platinum vendors.
The new curriculum is called ATAK, an acronym for Active Threat/Active Killer. The course goal is to prepare first responders for active threat situations. A critical element of ATAK training is distinguishing between what is an active threat and what isn’t. Upon completion of the course, students will understand the tactics used during an active threat and why they are different than the strategies used in a non-active situation.
Data published in 2018 shows an increasing number of active shooter incidents in the United States, with a peak of 30 incidents in 2017 (Statista Research Department, 2019). According to FBI data released earlier this year, there were 27 active shooter situations in 2018, leading to 213 casualties (Active shooter incidents in the United States in 2018, 2019). Due to these trends, VirTra believes it is necessary to have specific training courses to prepare officers for active threat situations.
Similar to other VirTra scenarios and courses, ATAK content is based on real-life incidents. Looking at the 1999 Columbine High School massacre and the 2008 Mumbai attacks, students will be able to take away critical lessons and use them as preparation for future attacks.
This first volume of ATAK will have an estimated completion time of three hours and best suits a class of eight participants. It will consist of a lecture, simulation scenario event training, and pre- and post-tests. The recommended eight participants should be placed in pairs when scenarios take place for maximum effect. Instructors may pair it with other courses such as the “Tourniquet Application Under Threat” course for supplemental techniques and skills.
Like previous V-VICTA® curriculum, ATAK will come with a training manual that includes note taking materials and a scoring rubric for instructors. Students are evaluated based on their ability to perform the required skillsets. Instructors monitor performance within two immersive scenarios. VirTra recommends repeating the scenarios until students “pass” by taking the correct actions. Another helpful trick is letting them watch other pairs complete the scenario, which allows students to learn by example.
To stay up-to-date with the trend of active threat situations, it is crucial to prepare officers. These events are unexpected and daunting, requiring training in advance. Frequent and accurate preparation increases the goal of minimizing the damage done by the threat as much and as quickly as possible.
Stay safe, train hard.