When recruits go through the police academy, not only do they need to train for various scenarios and situations, but marksmanship is essential as well. Each state has its own requirements for range performance, and if students do not meet them, they risk being dropped from the course.

There are ways to help improve range training without being on the shooting range. With VirTra’s accurate ballistics, training on a customizable, virtual range helps marksmanship skills transfer to the real range.

One example of how marksmanship simulation training can improve skills occurred with Garden City Police Department in Georgia. Sergeant Dess with the Training and Recruiting Division was concerned that two recruits were experiencing difficulty at the range. With the help of a VirTra System Installer, they were able to recreate the George Pistol Qualification Course on the simulator.

Both recruits had one more day of practice, according to Sgt. Dess, before they would take a range qualification test that they must pass or risk being dropped from the academy. After two hours of simulator practice, the students passed the qualification test the next day and are able to continue on their law enforcement training path. Their qualification scores on the Georgia Pistol Qualification Course were accurate to the scores they achieved while practicing on their V-100® simulator.

“Had they not been able to qualify, they would have been dropped from the academy class which unfortunately would have resulted in being released from employment,” said Sgt. Dess. “That afternoon I spoke to both of the officers via text message and asked if they believed the simulator attributed to their success and they both agreed it did.”

VirTra’s marksmanship program – V-Marksmanship® – allows full customization of the virtual range. Targets and shooting times can be altered to match a qualifications test or just your preference as an instructor. Law enforcement trainers can change the weather, time of day and landscape to test recruits’ proficiency in all conditions.

To learn more about how VirTra can help your agency keep their marksmanship scores high, contact a product specialist.

How do you transition your officers from traditional iron sights to a pistol-mounted red dot optic? There are plenty of good training ideas—such as increased practice on the range, lectures on how the optic works, etc.—but one of the best is having your officers engage in an extensive training course.

One such course is VirTra’s nationally-certified course “Red Dot Optic Training and Sustainment.” This new curriculum has 21 accompanying training drills and was created in conjunction with Victory First® utilizing Aimpoint® red dot optics. Just as it sounds, this course is designed to help officers successfully transition from the traditional iron sights to a modern pistol-mounted red dot optic.

How it Works

Red Dot is one of VirTra’s V-VICTA® curriculum, and thus, follows the same structure. With this curriculum, instructors receive lecture materials, presentations, handbooks, range drills and more to teach, train, test and sustain their officers on the given material. This starts in the classroom, then leads to extensive red dot optic training either in the simulator or on the range.

Since training a new skill requires extensive practice, the Red Dot Optic course includes 21 detailed drills; everything from how many yards out the target is, time limits, rounds and repetitions, etc. VirTra includes this information so instructors can either practice it on their real-life training simulators, or on the range.

After the Course

Obviously, the point of any course is to familiarize officers with the taught skill—in this case, utilizing the pistol-mounted red dot optic—but VirTra’s courses go a few steps further. After the course is completed, officers should be able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the red dot system, identify the importance of target and threat focus instead of the focus on the front sight, and more.

To continue learning about VirTra’s “Red Dot Optic Training and Sustainment” curriculum and how officers benefit from this training, please contact a VirTra specialist.

Making multiple trips out to the range and spending money on ammunition can be expensive. Simulation technology allows trainees to practice in their agency’s own facility and hone their skills before switching to live fire. While this technology is not meant to replace live fire training, it is designed to enhance it and prepare officers or servicemembers so that they perform better on the range.

From the Sim to the Range

With the proper simulator that has enhanced ballistics and tracking capabilities, instructors can deliver a training experience that not only saves time and money, but will give students better scores when they step on the range. By practicing in the simulator first, students can perfect their aim and waste less ammo on the live fire range.

Dave Patterson, a Criminal Justice Instructor at Northwest College in Powell, WY, uses his VirTra V-300® to teach three firearms courses that range from introductory to intermediate. Amazingly, during Patterson’s 2018 Fall and Spring semesters, roughly 70% of his students began with little or no pistol experience prior to the course. But by the end of the semester, the average on-range POST score was over 90%. Through extensive practice and use of VirTra’s simulation, students learned transferrable skills at a higher percentage than in years prior. Patterson noticed that students who get high scores in the simulator only experience a 2% score drop on the range.

Customizable Range Conditions

Real world conditions are never perfect, so why should they be in your simulator? Instructors have the freedom to customize range conditions all from the click of a button; whether its snow, wind, rain, fog or dust. Change the position of the sun to add the distraction of glare, or even let trainees practice in complete nighttime.

The same applies to targets and obstacles within the range. Train in a situation where moving targets pop into view from behind obstacles and through windows, or use traditional human-shaped targets that fall when shot.

Superior Ballistics

VirTra’s technology lets officers and warfighters train using their own weapon – anywhere from a Glock to an automatic assault rifle. This is possible through the numerous recoil kits and CO2 magazines that fit dozens of firearm types. The V-ST PRO® is the best simulator for marksmanship out of all VirTra’s options due to its range-like structure, .02 milliradians accuracy and the ability to have up to six firing lanes per screen. Up to five screens can be added, allowing 30 trainees to practice at once.

Aside from precise ballistics, all of VirTra’s marksmanship simulations are designed to have perspective accuracy; meaning users can kneel, crouch or lay prone without having to tilt their weapon upwards to meet the target onscreen. During the after-action report, students and instructors can view performance, such as targets hit and missed as well as bullet placement.

VirTra has recently launched certified curriculum with 21 training drills in conjunction with Victory First® utilizing Aimpoint® red dot optics. This coursework – “Red Dot Optic Training and Sustainment” – is part of the V-VICTA® line of curriculum provided to clients. It is being officially announced and demonstrated at SHOT Show 2022.

Aimpoint is recognized as the originator of red dot sight technology and has provided military, law enforcement and commercial clients with a more accurate shooting experience. Because of the wide usage of red dot sights and how increasing numbers of law enforcement agencies are using them, VirTra wanted to work with Aimpoint to help officers practice adjusting to the use of red dot sights.

Victory First not only trains law enforcement but provides accessories and gear for officers as well as responsible firearm owners. As a retired police officer and U.S. Marine veteran, Owner Matt Jacques has used his vast knowledge to assist VirTra in writing and reviewing the curriculum and its associated training drills.

“I was truly humbled to have VirTra contact me to build out the RDS syllabus and course materials for their simulators” said Matt Jacques, owner of Victory First. “Spending time with their staff and the people who bring all of the coursework and drills to the level of realism the VirTra systems provides was an honor. The VirTra simulators offer a huge advantage for agencies to be able to provide education, supplement and maintain proficiency with their issued gear. This program will provide education on RDS handgun selection, fielding, initial training as well as sustainment training at a time when more Law Enforcement agencies adopt RDS optics on duty handguns.”

With 21 detailed training drills, the goal of the course is to allow officers to practice drawing, aiming and more with red dot sights. Law enforcement members will also be able to review the pros and cons of using a red dot sight before moving onto drills where they can test their skills. Even learning how to deal with sight failures due to damage or expired battery is something that trainees can do.

The upcoming Red Dot Optic Training and Sustainment curriculum is provided for free to all VirTra customers that are on an annual service agreement. It will consist of 4 hours of curriculum and has passed rigorous review from IADLEST to receive NCP certification. It can also be seen this week until the 21st at VirTra’s SHOT Show booth – Booth #30009.

To learn more about the new curriculum and how it can be integrated into your department’s training, contact a specialist.

Warfighters and soldiers in the field face numerous dangerous and life-threatening situations every day. Not only are the enemies they face unpredictable, but they must also make decisions based on their unique environments, which are difficult to mimic or simulate using common learning methods. A simulator that utilizes real video is a highly effective way to train soldiers, and with time, this style of training can lead to better reactions and decision-making skills.

Virtual Simulators are Immersive

In many cases, recruits learn how to handle situations they may encounter in the field by listening to a lecture, watching a video, or going out into the field and practicing a variety of maneuvers. Though these things can and often do help members of the military learn what to do in certain situations, these methods lack realism and do little to properly train soldiers. When faced with a life-threatening situation, soldiers who have experienced that situation before are far more likely to react appropriately.

VirTra’s simulators are designed to provide a completely immersive experience and help soldiers feel as if they are truly out in the field. They utilize high-quality video and sound, and they come with dozens of pre-programmed scenarios that can be customized for unique situations. This makes a simulator one of the best tools available for training.

Experience Any Imaginable Scenario and Environment

Another of the biggest benefits associated with utilizing VirTra to train warfighters is the simulators’ ability to recreate almost any scenario in any possible environment. For example, a vehicle may react differently in dry conditions than in the rain, and by simulating both experiences, soldiers can learn the differences and make appropriate decisions. Types of military scenarios include green-on-blue, active threat, key leader engagement and more. Essentially, with the ability to control the scenario, the weather and the visibility, it is possible to help soldiers and warfighters learn what it is like to work in a wide range of conditions that they may not experience otherwise.

The same goes for virtual range training, where VirTra’s marksmanship programs are both customizable and ballistically accurate. This makes it a perfect supplement for live fire range training. Instructors can change the setting of the range from the time of day, weather, wind and more so military members can experience the effects different conditions have when firing. Instructors may also change the types of targets and how they appear, turn or pop up.

In-Depth Progress Measurement

VirTra gives military service members (and their instructors) an opportunity to review the actions that were taken during the simulation and improve their behaviors based upon the result. In other words, it is possible to measure soldiers’ progress objectively and completely. Simulators track everything a soldier says and does, and they can even record reaction time. Following a simulation, it is possible to review footage for debrief of any given individual’s performance. The more a servicemember experiences these scenarios, the better he or she will become at making quick decisions.


Service members out in the field experience a wide range of unpredictable situations. Because of this, it may seem impossible to train based on real-life experience, but this is not the case. Simulators can provide an incredibly realistic simulation of any imaginable situation in any environment, and when soldiers can learn by doing, they are far more likely to make the best decisions when faced with those scenarios in the field.

To learn more about how VirTra can help train your military squad, speak to a specialist.

As a way to ensure servicemembers are well-prepared for any given situation, VirTra’s subject matter experts and content department work together to create high quality, realistic simulator scenarios. Just one example of the dozens of scenarios focuses on vehicle traffic control point training.

Traffic Control Points (TCP), like their name suggests, are locations where military police control the traffic – but it is not just about telling drivers where to go and ensuring orderly flow. Soldiers and warfighters must maintain situational awareness during searches and in case of militant attacks.

The scenario shown in the video below simulates a Traffic Control Checkpoint where a search turns suddenly escalates and an enemy militant opens fire on the student and their squad. This military training scenario allows trainees to understand how quickly situations can turn deadly and how to provide cover for fellow soldiers.

In addition to TCP training, soldiers and warfighters also have access to scenarios for Key Leader Engagement, Combat Training, Green on Blue, Active Threats and much more. Marksmanship is also an important focus, as VirTra has ensured our customizable virtual ranges feature incredible ballistic accuracy so skills transfer properly to the field. Combined with our durable recoil kits and CO2 magazines that fit right into a soldier’s duty weapon, VirTra’s training is the perfect supplement to live-fire.

To learn more about how VirTra can provide intense, realistic and effective training for servicemembers, contact a specialist today.

There is no question that VirTra’s Marksmanship Authoring program is an amazing tool. With marksmanship authoring you can pre-program an entire course of fire with turning targets that expose themselves for select periods of time at pre-designated distances. You can virtually author your entire department’s firearms qualification course into your system to help struggling shooters get their reps in before range qualifications. It’s truly a great tool.

Recently, during an Advanced Trainer Certification Course (ATCC) at our HQ in Tempe I found that many of our clients are not using the free-range portion of our marksmanship program to its fullest potential. As firearms instructor myself, I find our free-range feature to be incredibly functional as a skill builder.

At the last ATCC I had an individual approach me to ask how to counter the argument that simulator training can’t replace live fire. While I can’t counter that argument, I can wholeheartedly endorse the use of our marksmanship package as a supplement to live fire training. Let’s take a minute to discuss the fundamentals of marksmanship.

Stance – Simply put, stance is your foundation starting from the feet up. Just as you wouldn’t want a house built on a weak foundation you can’t shoot well from an unstable platform. Gone are the days of the “Weaver Stance” (I’m old enough to remember that) and current modern law enforcement techniques are teaching a more modern modified isosceles stance with body armor facing the threat in an athletic stance with weight evenly distributed on the balls of your feet to allow for mobility.

Grip – Grip is the manner in which your hands interface with the weapon. Terms like “strong hand” and “support hand” signify which hand you use to manipulate the trigger. Building a proper grip with the principles of leverage, friction, and pressure will enable shooters to manipulate the trigger with an isolated trigger finger allowing for faster more accurate shots.

Sight Alignment – We have all been taught clear front sight placed between the rear sight notch, flush across the top with equal space between each side of the notch and front sight (equal height/equal light). That’s sight picture, but with the advent of pistol mounted red dot sights we need to be open to more modern tools and techniques. (Coming soon… VirTra’s Red Dot Transition and Sustainment program).

Sight picture – This is simply where we place that perfect sight alignment that we discussed above on our target.

Trigger Control – Probably the most important fundamental in marksmanship, trigger control is proper manipulation of the trigger without disturbing your sights. I would go so far as to say that many problems that I’ve solved for problem shooters took place within their trigger guards.

Follow Through – This is a multi-faceted principle. Follow through is a process by which we reset the trigger during recoil and re-place our sight picture on our target. Commonly shortened to reset on recoil, we are setting ourselves up for follow up shots should they be required.

Now back to the VirTra free range function. Completely different from the Marksmanship authoring function, our system provides any number of ranges with or without backstops. Depending on the training objective that you want, you have the option to have a virtual “square range” in your training venue. One of the staples of firearms training is drills.

Once your cadre has established the drills that they want to accomplish, it’s as simple as selecting a free fire range and using the “target management” button to place your targets wherever you need them, just as you would on a square range. There are a number of targets to choose from and there is no limit to the number of targets you can place in your virtual square range. The target “offset” button can used for lateral movement and the “distance” button is used to place your target at various ranges within your virtual space. Quite literally one of the more valuable tools for teaching students’ proper fundamentals without the need for authoring an entire course of fire.  Once fundamentals have been mastered instructors have the option to introduce time standards for the drill by selecting our pro timer.

While nothing can replace live fire, our system is equipped with options that enable firearms instructors to analyze their shooters performance close up and personal, without the normal concerns associated with live fire range practice for pennies on the dollar. Students are likely to feel more comfortable with simulator guns and may be more susceptible to trying new techniques if they aren’t worried about having a negligent discharge and damaging property or hurting themselves or others. There is no need for eye and ear protection so students can clearly hear tips or techniques and the recoil from our recoil kits is substantial enough to give the shooter feedback about their recoil management. Finally, of course, is the advantage of not having to brass-up at the end of the training day.

Feel free to reach out and speak with any of the VirTra SMEs for questions or advice on how to set up your free fire range if you have any questions and as always…

Stay Safe and Train Hard.


This article was written by Mike Clark, VirTra Law Enforcement Subject Matter Expert

With the cost of ammunition continuing to rise, how about a training solution that still allows officers to practice marksmanship with their duty firearms, but for a fraction of the price?

VirTra’s Indoor Shooting Range

Each VirTra simulator is equipped with V-Marksmanship®, a program that allows for training on a variety of targets and courses in the convenient location of a department’s classroom. V-Marksmanship allows instructors to use customizable environments and add an unlimited number of targets, environmental effects—wind direction and speed, weather, altitude, humidity, etc.—and other variables in a variety of distances to test and hone an officer’s skill.

To increase the training factor, targets can be programmed to move front-to-back, left-to-right, or in a box shape and all at different speeds. Training in this manner allows instructors to help officers develop firearm manipulation skills in a safe environment that otherwise could not be performed on a live fire range.

The Realism Behind V-Marksmanship

Having a simulator that looks like a firing range is only part of the equation. V-Marksmanship also boasts the most accurate ballistic calculator in the industry for the most training realism. The ballistic calculator mimics the real-world ballistics based on bullet grain, barrel length, twist rate, sight height and even environmental conditions!

Furthermore, VirTra’s V-Marksmanship ballistic calculator has been independently verified and tested for accuracy up to 2,500 meters within .02 milliradians—thus providing your department with powerfully realistic training that no other training simulator can provide.

The last key of realism is the weapon used. Officers can train using their duty firearms, once outfitted with VirTra drop-in laser recoil kits. This renders the weapon safe, allows it to communicate with the simulator and produces realistic recoil to make training feel like it is on the range.

How Departments Save Money

In addition to saving costs by not having to pay for transportation to a range (or reserve a time or the time spent traveling) departments save in ammunition cost—big time.

Currently, each round of 9mm ammo costs $0.90 for civilians. While departments receive a law enforcement and bulk discount, the price can still be steep, and continues to climb.

Training with VirTra allows officers to use their own weapons with the addition of the drop-in laser recoil kit and CO2 magazine. These magazines help supply the recoil with an approximate cost of $0.02/shot—a dramatic reduction compared to current ammunition costs. As your officers’ train in marksmanship, image how much the department saves in a minute, five or ten. Now multiply this by the number of officers needing training and see the savings pile high.

VirTra understands that budgets are tight, but training after this manner provides high-end training with reduced cost. Learn more ways simulation training can save your department thousands of dollars each year by talking to a VirTra specialist.

Training needs to be realistic. It’s as simple as that.

However, training needs to also be accomplished in both short and long periods of time, be adaptable to the department’s policies and fit in classrooms. As such, a department’s best solution is simulation training. VirTra offers multiple simulators—complete with a different number of screens and footprint—so departments can choose the best option for them.

Best of all, the training stays realistic by allowing officers to train with their service firearms. To keep training safe, secure and to work with the simulator, officers forgo blanks or FX marking cartridges and instead install a drop-in laser recoil kit into the barrel and CO2 magazine into their magazine well.

Due to the nature of VirTra’s recoil kit design, this is not a permanent modification. Meaning, after training, officers simply remove the drop-in laser recoil kit and can again utilize their firearm in the field.

Don’t just take our word for it. VirTra prides ourselves in being able to show what we preach.

Watch how easy it is to install these kits in the video below!

To learn more about the types of drop-in laser recoil kits and how these revolutionize simulation training, contact a VirTra specialist.

Train hard, train smart, train safely with VirTra.

Article written by Lon Bartel, VirTra’s Director of Training and Curriculum, and David Blakes, Ph.D., a retired California peace officer and a court-certified expert on human factors psychology and police practices with a focus on officer-involved-shootings. 

148 certified Arizona Peace Officers (.2 years to 30 years of experience) from the same agency were tested on response time from an audible signal to draw and fire one round at the 3 yard line. This was a single attempt with no warm up and no practice prior. The performance that was captured was how the officer may perform “at the first call for service of the day”. Officers varied in weapon used (Glock & 1911) and holster design (Safariland ALS & Safariland 6280 w/ hood). Data was collected by AZPOST (Arizona Peace Officers Standards and Training) certified firearms instructors using a CED 7000 shot timer. Time comparisons were collected and analyzed. Average times for these officers to draw and fire one round after an audible signal 1.777 seconds (SD .329). It should be noted that 3% of the officers missed the designated target zone at 3 yards.

In 1986 SWAT officer Dennis Tuller wrote an article that presented information on drawing and firing one round compared to running speed times of a hypothetical suspect. This drill has often been mislabeled and miss-characterized as the “21 Foot Rule”.  Mr. Tuller has stated himself that it is not a rule it was a drill. The Tuller’s basic premise was that the “average” officer could draw and fire one round in 1.5 seconds and the average person could travel 21 feet in 1.5 seconds. Tuller was contacted via email to confirm some of these details.

Hitting a subject with one round in no way establishes that the subject is no longer a threat or even that the subject is guaranteed to slow down or even change behavior. The internet has numerous video of subject being hit with gunfire and continuing to fight and present a deadly threat to those around them. In theory firing at the subject and missing (intentional or not) may or may not cause the subject to change behavior, but may also place others at risk.

Since 1986 weapon design and holster design has changed. The original testing by Tuller was done on a thumb snap holster and with a Smith & Wesson Model 64 .38 Special revolver. The question was evaluated if the “average” time to draw and fire one round for a trained officer has changed. The officers from the same agency were all used for this initial study. The commonality in training was an important constant that was held. Most attended a AZPOST certified academy in Arizona, but all of them have met the AZPOST firearms standards.


Officers at the tested agency were issued two different weapon systems based on their choice or assignment. One is the Sig Sauer Tacops 1911 chambered in .45 ACP (N=53). The 1911 comes with a grip safety as well as a manual thumb safety that must be disengaged prior to firing. The shooters were not allowed to disengage the thumb safety until the weapon was drawn from the holster. The other weapon was the Glock (N=95) chambered in 9mm. .40 S&W as well as .45 ACP. The variation in caliber choice and weapon choice was a philosophical decision made many years prior to this testing. This was done to fit the weapon to the “shooter” not forcing the “shooter” to fit the weapon.

Figure 1 – Glock

Figure 2 – Sig Tacops 1911


The holsters primarily looked at were the Safariland ALS holster (N=70) and the Safariland 6280 (N=66). There was also a small sampling of open top holsters or holsters with a thumb break. The ALS (automatic locking system) is a retention that is disengaged by sliding a lever posteriorly. This lever is located between the holster and the body of the officer. The 6280 holster has a hood that wraps around the back of the slide of the firearm. The hood is disengaged by pushing down the rotating the hood forward clearing the back of the slide.

Figure 3 – Safariland 6280 w/ 1911 holstered and Sarafiland ALS empty


The target was a TQ-21 that was placed 3 yards away from the officer. The target has a lighter grey “target zone” where the officers were expected to place their shots. Any missed shots were recorded (N=5).


Officers tested were given direction on the specific task. They were advised that when they hear the tone from the shot timer they were to as quickly as they could draw their weapon and fire one round. The first attempt was the only one recorded. It was recorded for both time and if it was a successful hit or not. Officers were given no “warm ups” and no time to practice. This was done to more closely represent the response of an officer that could be responding to their first call of the day. This task is not novel to the officers and is part of a required task on the AZPOST mandated qualification. All officers in Arizona must pass this qualification. In the AZPOST qualification the shooters must draw and fire two rounds to center mass on a target (3 yards) and one round to the head in under 4 seconds. This task is to simulate a failure of the first two rounds to stop an aggressive attacker. Some of the offices tested used either an open top (no retention) or a Safariland 292 holster and were excluded from the final analysis (N=12).


The overall average for these certified peace officers to draw and fire one round at a target 3 yards away was 1.777 seconds with a SD +/- .329. This is a different average than what Mr. Tuller established in 1986. In speaking with him via email he stated that it may have been their method of using a stop watch as opposed to a shot timer that could account for the difference. The shot timer is a more accurate measurement device and eliminates reaction/response time of the evaluator from the testing.
Holster and weapon combination times were also evaluated.

The fastest times were seen with the Glock and the ALS holster. The slowest times were seen with the Glock and the 6280 holster.

Of the 12 tested officers that were eliminated from the primary analysis the open top/no retention holsters (N=6) were on average faster (1.493 seconds SD .126). The Safariland 295 holsters (N=6) were typically slower (1.896 seconds SD .055)


The difference in times between the 1986 data and the current data could be attributed to methodology. The implications however do show more of a disadvantage to the officer. The slowest time average of the Glock in a 6280 holster places the officer at 1.87 seconds to hear the tone then retrieve the weapon and fire one round. This was the most common weapon and holster combination and based on the researchers experience one of the most common seen in Arizona. The implication for the officer facing an edged weapon or impact weapon may be even more problematic. Data presented by Dr. William Lewinski at the 2017 Use of Force Analysis Certification in Scottsdale Arizona is of concern. Lewinski presented a table that showed a comparison of stride length, step time and velocity for sprinting. In this data subjects could cover 3.32 feet in the first stride with a time of .34 seconds. Each step after that covered more ground and took less time to take. On the 6th stride which took a cumulative time of only 1.67 seconds subjects were able to cover 25.72 feet. This 6th stride took .25 seconds to complete and covered the distance of 5.22 feet. There is still a time difference (.20 seconds) between the 1.67 seconds of Lewinski’s data and the 1.87 seconds that was established in this testing. Using Lewinski’s data conservatively and assuming that there is no speed increase/decrease in the 7th step subjects sprinting are going to cover an additional 4.176 feet or a cumulative distance of 29.89 feet in 1.87 seconds the time it took the tested officers to drawn and fire only one round using a Glock and a 6280 holster.

“I’m sure you recognize that the “Tueller Drill” is an exercise in reaction and response time. And that there is a sliding scale of time and distant, as a person’s “reactionary gap” will vary depending on skill level, equipment, situational awareness, environment, number of assailants, and a host of other factors.”

-Dennis Tueller, April 17, 2017


Blake, D. and Bartel, L. (2018) Holster and handgun: does equipment affect response time? Law Enforcement Executive Forum • 2018 • 18(2)